Vital Record Your source for health news from the Texas A&M Health Science Center 2014-11-21T19:22:17Z http://news.tamhsc.edu/feed/atom/ Elizabeth Grimm <![CDATA[Texas A&M Health Science Center advancing Alzheimer’s disease research as coordinating center for new statewide grant program]]> http://news.tamhsc.edu/?post_type=post&p=22040 2014-11-21T19:22:17Z 2014-11-21T17:29:53Z The TARCC is comprised of six Texas medical research institutions, including Texas A&M Health Science Center, all working together to advance scientific initiatives aimed at halting the disease in its tracks. One such initiative is a new grant program administered by TAMHSC that encourages utilization of TARCC’s extensive patient cohort]]>
Geriatric nurse caring for an older woman

According to the Alzheimer’s Association, an estimated 5.2 million people in the United States are affected by Alzheimer’s disease. Texas in particular ranks third in the nation for the number of Alzheimer’s disease cases and deaths.

According to the Alzheimer’s Association, an estimated 5.2 million people in the United States are affected by Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Of those people, more than 500,000 die each year because of this debilitating and incurable disease. Texas in particular ranks third in the nation for the number of Alzheimer’s disease cases and deaths.

In 1999 the Texas State legislature mandated that the Texas Council on Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Disorders establish a consortium of Alzheimer’s disease centers, leading to the formation of the Texas Alzheimer’s Research and Care Consortium (TARCC). Fifteen years later, the TARCC is comprised of six Texas medical research institutions, including Texas A&M Health Science Center (TAMHSC), all working together to advance scientific initiatives aimed at halting the disease in its tracks.

One such initiative is the new Texas Council on Alzheimer’s Disease & Related Disorders TARCC Investigator Grant Program (IGP), a part of the state-funded Darrell K. Royal Texas Alzheimer’s Initiative. The council selected TAMHSC to administer the grant that encourages utilization of TARCC’s extensive patient cohort through the award of five pilot grants of $50,000 each and two larger awards of $125,000 over a two-year period. The TARCC Investigator Grant Program, which specifically targets burgeoning scientists, aims to increase awareness and application of TARCC’s unique and expansive patient data and sample resources in order to stimulate new understandings of Alzheimer’s disease and advance related scientific discoveries.

“The Council has the utmost confidence in Texas A&M Health Science Center to design and administer this important allocation of Alzheimer’s disease research dollars in Texas. We are proud of our affiliation with TAMHSC and the benefit to all Texans that will come from this endeavor,” said Debbie Hanna, Chair Texas Council on Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Disorders.

Specifically, the grant program will leverage the TARCC’s Texas Harris Alzheimer’s Study that tracks a diverse group of patients diagnosed with AD and mild cognitive impairment, as well as healthy controls. The study facilitates collaborative AD research projects among the TARCC member institutions and promotes novel, basic and clinical research that develops new insights into mechanisms of AD. One of study’s strengths is that it follows the participants annually in conjunction with regular collection of standardized clinical, neuropsychiatric, and genetic and blood biomarker data and samples. The study is unique in its inclusion of the largest number of Mexican-American participants – the fastest growing population in Texas – ever involved in an ongoing Alzheimer’s research study.

“Given the comprehensive nature of the data collected, as well as the inclusion of Mexican-Americans, the Texas Harris Alzheimer’s Study is an invaluable asset to national AD research” said Farida Sohrabji, Ph.D., professor and associate department chair at the Texas A&M Health Science Center College of Medicine, who serves on the TARCC’s Steering Committee and will be responsible for coordinating launch and award administration of the grant program. “Although open to all researchers within the state, the program will target junior-level investigators to provide up-and-coming researchers with financial support to advance studies that utilize this unparalleled resource and spur multi-institutional, collaborative research throughout Texas.”

More information on the grant program and future announcements of application deadlines can be found at: http://www.txalzresearch.org/.

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Holly Lambert <![CDATA[Fast Facts: Anthrax 101]]> http://news.tamhsc.edu/?post_type=post&p=22036 2014-11-21T19:20:08Z 2014-11-21T16:41:45Z Anthrax is a serious infectious disease caused by a bacteria that can lie dormant in soil for decades. While anthrax occurs most often in humans handling animals (or animal products) infected with the bacteria, there have been several instances of anthrax being used as a bioterror agent. There has been a lull in anthrax coverage in recent years, but it remains an extremely dangerous bioterrorism weapon that should remain top of mind]]>
Gerald Parker

Gerald Parker, D.V.M., Ph.D., vice president for public health preparedness and response at Texas A&M Health Science Center.

Anthrax is a serious infectious disease caused by a bacteria that can lie dormant in soil for decades. While anthrax occurs most often in humans handling animals (or animal products) infected with the bacteria, there have been several instances of anthrax being used as a bioterror agent. Most recently, anthrax was used in 2001 when letters containing anthrax spores were mailed to several news media offices and two U.S. senators, resulting in five deaths and 17 individuals infected with the bacteria. While there has been a lull in anthrax coverage in recent years, it’s an extremely dangerous bioterrorism weapon that should remain top of mind. We sat down with Gerald Parker, D.V.M., Ph.D., vice president for public health preparedness and response at Texas A&M Health Science Center, to find out some basics about the infectious disease.   

1. What is Anthrax?

Anthrax is an infectious disease caused by rod-shaped bacteria known as Bacillus anthracis, which produces dormant spores that can live in the environment, like soil, for many years. As a naturally occurring substance, anthrax commonly affects domestic and wild herbivores, who eat the naturally occurring spores while grazing. Although it is rare, it can cause serious illness in humans and, if left untreated, can lead to death.

Anthrax is most common in agricultural regions of Central and South America, sub-Saharan Africa, central and southwestern Asia, southern and Eastern Europe and the Caribbean. While human disease is rare in the United States, sporadic outbreaks do occur in wild and domestic grazing animals such as cattle and deer.

2. How it is contracted?

When spores get into the body of an animal or person they can be “activated” and turn into active, growing cells. After this occurs the bacteria begin to multiply, spreading out in the body, and producing toxins that cause severe illness. It is important to note that anthrax is not contagious person-to-person, like the cold or flu. However, there are multiple ways in which individuals can become exposed to anthrax spores, including: inhalation of contaminated materials, such as wool, hides or hair (inhalation); cuts and lesions on the body (cutaneous); and ingestion of undercooked meats from infected animals or drinking contaminated water (gastrointestinal).

Cutaneous anthrax is the most common form of the disease in humans, accounting for over 95 percent of all cases. Fortunately, cutaneous anthrax is also the least deadly form of anthrax, with a mortality rate of only 10-20 percent if left untreated. Gastrointestinal anthrax exhibits mortality rates from 25-75 percent in the absence of treatment, and untreated inhalation anthrax results in greater than 80 percent fatality.

Worth noting, those most at risk for being naturally exposed to anthrax spores are individuals who work closely with animals and livestock, or animal products contaminated with anthrax spores.

3. What are the symptoms of anthrax?

Initial symptoms, which are generally similar to flu-like symptoms (fever and chills, cough, nausea and vomiting and body aches), can take anywhere from one day to more than two months to appear and depend upon the type of infection. If someone has symptoms of anthrax, it’s important to get medical care as quickly as possible for the best chance of survival and a full recovery.

For a complete list of symptoms for inhalation, cutaneous and gastrointestinal anthrax, visit the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website.

4. Is there a treatment?

Anthrax can be treated with antibiotics and antitoxins, but those who contract a serious case of anthrax will need to be hospitalized and undergo an aggressive course of treatment. Depending on the patient’s history and antibiotic sensitivity testing, the doctor will select the best antibiotics, therapeutics and supportive care for the patient.

5. Is there anything you can do to prevent the disease?

While there is a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) licensed vaccine indicated for active immunization for the prevention of disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, it is usually not available for the general public. The vaccine is available for at-risk adults, whose jobs expose them to possible sources of anthrax including: certain laboratory workers, some people who work with or handle animals and animal products and some members of the U.S. military.

For the general public, preventative measures in the form of antibiotics are in order for anyone who has been exposed to anthrax spores to mitigate disease development. The manufacturer of the FDA licensed anthrax vaccine also recently filed an application with the FDA to use the vaccine in conjunction with antibiotics to prevent anthrax disease after suspected or confirmed exposure to Bacillus anthracis.

Dr. Gerald Parker, vice president for public health preparedness and response at the Texas A&M Health Science Center and principal investigator at the Texas A&M Center for Innovation in Advanced Development and Manufacturing. Dr. Parker previously served as deputy assistant secretary of defense in Washington, D.C., leading chemical and biological defense; and former Commanding Officer of Fort Detrick.

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Rae Lynn Mitchell <![CDATA[Cline wins CHOT student research poster competition]]> http://news.tamhsc.edu/?post_type=post&p=22029 2014-11-19T19:46:33Z 2014-11-19T19:46:33Z Kayla Cline, M.S., won the student research poster competition at a recent Center for Health Organization Transformation (CHOT) meeting in Boston, Massachusetts]]>
Kayla Cline, M.S.

Kayla Cline, M.S.

At a recent Center for Health Organization Transformation (CHOT) meeting in Boston, Massachusetts, Texas A&M Health Science Center School of Public Health graduate student Kayla Cline, M.S., won the student research poster competition. Graduate students from Penn State University, Georgia Institute of Technology and Northeastern University also participated in this competition.

Cline is currently pursuing a doctorate degree in Health Services Research at the Texas A&M School of Public Health.

Cline’s research poster, “Economics and Potential Financial Model of the Perioperative Surgical Home (PSH): Developing a Framework for PSH Design and Action,” outlined a research project with the American Society for Anesthesiologists to determine best practices in perioperative surgical care. The project will eventually set the standards of care for organizations seeking to obtain Perioperative Surgical Home status.

CHOT is an industry-university cooperative research center (I/UCRC) funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and industry members to conduct research supporting major management, clinical and information technology innovations within healthcare. CHOT, which is based at the Texas A&M School of Public Health, received renewed funding in May of this year from the NSF through 2019

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Rae Lynn Mitchell <![CDATA[Implementing Affordable Care Act mandated health risk assessments will stretch primary care providers beyond capacity]]> http://news.tamhsc.edu/?post_type=post&p=22022 2014-11-19T15:50:04Z 2014-11-18T20:24:21Z The Affordable Care Act established a Medicare Annual Wellness Visit that mandates the inclusion of routine health risk assessments (HRAs), but until recently little was known about the extent to which health care providers can routinely engage patients, and about the health risks and patient attitudes that will be uncovered]]>
Doctor speaking with patients about their medications and treatments.

Attending to patient concerns is the essence of patient-centered medical care and can ultimately lead to better health outcomes.

Primary care practices are willing to implement behavioral and mental health assessments required by the Affordable Care Act, but lack the resources to do so effectively. If they implement the assessments, the high number of health risks identified will likely stretch many practices beyond treatment capacity, according to two studies published this month in the Annals of Family Medicine.

The Affordable Care Act established a Medicare Annual Wellness Visit that mandates the inclusion of routine health risk assessments (HRAs), but until recently little was known about the extent to which health care providers can routinely engage patients, and about the health risks and patient attitudes that will be uncovered.

Coordinated by clinical researchers at Virginia Commonwealth University, three national funding agencies and researchers from eight universities collaborated on these studies including Regents and Distinguished Professor Marcia Ory, Ph.D., of the Texas A&M Health Science Center School of Public Health. Ory helped direct the research at two clinics in the Brazos Valley examining the way HRAs work in clinics in more rural areas.

Marcia Ory, Ph.D.

Marcia Ory, Ph.D.

As described in “How Primary Care Practices Field a Behavioral and Mental Health Assessment,” HRAs can be effective in identifying patients who are at risk, and primary care practices are promising places to conduct HRAs because of the long-term relationships these doctors have with their patients. However, conducting health risk assessments and then helping patients improve their behaviors and mental health takes time and a team-based approach.

“We know that primary care clinicians can be strong change agents, but to be most effective they need to be taught basic behavior change principles. Additionally, such assessments will work best if they are embedded into clinical practice and not seen as an ‘added on’ activity,” Ory said.

In that study, nine diverse primary care practices conducted HRAs with more than 1,700 patients, but most of the practices lacked capacity and infrastructure to maintain the work on their own and none chose to maintain the HRA after study completion. Most sites did, however, integrate elements of the supplied HRA into their workflow.

In the next study, researchers described the patient-reported frequency, readiness to change, desire to discuss and perceived importance of 13 health risk factors identified on the supplied HRA — which was called My Own Health Report (MOHR). This study is titled “Frequency of and Prioritization of Patient Health Risks: Findings from the My Own Health Report (MOHR) Implementation Trial.”

Close to 55 percent of patients had more than six risks ranging from inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption to depression, but on average, they only wanted to change or discuss one of those risks. Engaging patients in prioritizing health risks and then focusing on the one to three that are of highest priority may be a more realistic, acceptable and manageable compromise between neglecting these health risks and trying to address all of them simultaneously.

“This study advanced knowledge about best practices for behavior change by pulling together an interdisciplinary team of clinicians, behavioral scientists and public health researchers who took a very practical approach to addressing how standardized assessments could be embedded into clinical practices” Ory said. “In particular this study shows that HRAs can help patients identify risks and prioritize those they would like assistance dealing with in the primary care setting.”

Attending to patient concerns is the essence of patient-centered medical care and can ultimately lead to better health outcomes, according to Ory.

Both studies were jointly supported by the National Cancer Institute (NCI), the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) and the Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (OBSSR).

In addition to Ory, researchers from Carilion Clinic, Fielding School of Public Health UCLA, OCHIN, University of Colorado School of Medicine, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, University of Vermont and Virginia Tech were involved in these studies.

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Cheri Shipman <![CDATA[Pharmacy researcher looks for ways to increase medication absorption]]> http://news.tamhsc.edu/?post_type=post&p=22013 2014-11-19T16:37:10Z 2014-11-18T20:05:42Z Researcher with the Texas A&M Health Science Center Irma Lerma Rangel College of Pharmacy looks for ways to extend the release of medication in the body]]>

While taking a medication is oftentimes as simple as popping a bottle cap and filling a glass of water, many patients do not realize the complexity of the work that led to manufacturing that drug. Researchers spend lengthy periods of time designing formulations that can extend the efficacy of medicine or increase its impact on relief.

One such researcher, Mohammad Nutan, Ph.D., associate professor of pharmaceutical sciences at the Texas A&M Health Science Center Irma Lerma Rangel College of Pharmacy is interested in bioavailability, or the rate and extent at which a substance is absorbed in the body.

“When you take a tablet of medication, it lasts for maybe just a few hours,” Nutan said. “We have the ability to extend the medication with design, whether it is prolonging it in some way or having someone consume the medication by an alternative method—intramuscularly for example. If we developed a formula that could extend the release of the medication, it could ease this process for patients.” An example of such release is Allegra® medications. A consumer can purchase a 12-hour formula or a 24-hour formula, depending on the needs of the patient.

Nutan is looking for ways to ease patient care and rehabilitation; and so far, has found means of prolonging the duration of action of medication in the body, making it more convenient for patients. His current research focuses on improving absorption of fat soluble drugs obtained from natural sources, thus the advantage of extending drug release is combined with the benefits of using natural products.

“One thing we often do is look at the effects of different factors used in different formulations to increase bioavailability,” Nutan said. “How do these factors truly affect it? We occasionally use experimental design, prepare multiple formulations and see which model works.”

By using experimental design, Nutan uses less time and resources to complete his research, which allows him to gather more data to find the formulation with optimized properties.

“The design allows you to measure the effects of various factors, such as particle size of the drug and the amount of each ingredient used, on some important factors including extent of drug release and product stability,” Nutan said. “The formula with the best desirable characteristics can be predicted by using software and consequently such formulation can be prepared to verify the expected outcomes.”

Nutan is currently studying curcumin, which is a natural substance in turmeric that is helpful in treating certain cancers and used as an antioxidant. Using animal models, he looks at the relationship between the changes in the experiment and the outcome after discovering how much of the drug is released at certain specific time points throughout the process.

More than just advancing discoveries himself, Nutan also encourages his research students to test things on their own. He allows them to propose what they’d like to research and he supports them as they learn.

“The first thing they learn – and I learned – is that not every experience works on the first try,” he said. “In fact, more times than not, you get to start all over. But that is the beauty of research – finding solutions where you least expected them.”

Nutan hopes his work in the area of medical absorption will offer patients solutions that will ease, and sometimes expedite, their health and rehabilitation journey.

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Holly Lambert <![CDATA[Allergic to penicillin? You probably aren’t]]> http://news.tamhsc.edu/?post_type=post&p=22015 2014-11-18T17:24:13Z 2014-11-18T17:05:12Z Penicillin is often the first line of defense for a number of common illnesses, including ear and sinus infections, strep throat, chest infections and urinary tract infections. But when a patient is allergic to the ‘superdrug,’ physicians are left with few antibiotic options that are oftentimes less effective, more expensive and can cause greater side effects, putting you at more risk for drug resistance]]>

Penicillin is often the first line of defense for a number of common illnesses, including ear and sinus infections, strep throat, chest infections and urinary tract infections. But when a patient is allergic to the ‘superdrug,’ physicians are left with few antibiotic options that are oftentimes less effective, more expensive and can cause greater side effects, putting you at more risk for drug resistance.

However, new research suggests that a majority of people who think there are allergic to penicillin are actually not. In fact, in one study, 94 percent of people who believed they were allergic to penicillin tested negative during an allergy test for the drug.

All too often, people have a bad experience with penicillin as a child, such as a skin rash following dosage of penicillin, but were never actually tested to see if they were truly allergic.Differences between penicillin side effects and allergic reactions

“People tend to confuse side effects with allergies,” said Andrea M. Luce, Pharm.D., assistant professor at the Texas A&M Health Science Center Irma Lerma Rangel College of Pharmacy. “People will experience a side effect and think it’s an allergy. It’s vital to know the difference between a side effect and a true allergic reaction to the medication.”

The most common side effects include: stomach pain, nausea or vomiting. In a true allergy to penicillin, patients have an anaphylactic reaction, including swelling of the airways, hives and shortness of breath.

“Recently, a patient expressed that they were allergic to penicillin and we asked what happens when they take it,” Luce said. “The patient said they get light headed, which happens as a side effect rather than an allergy.”

Unsure whether you are truly allergic to penicillin or just had a bad childhood experience with the medication? Penicillin skin testing is the most reliable method for evaluating your sensitivity to the drug.

Why does it matter? Penicillin-based antibiotics are often much less expensive and reduce your risk for drug resistance. If you repeatedly administer highly powerful, non-penicillin antibiotics for infections, they can easily become less effective over time.

It’s important to discuss your allergies with your pharmacist or health care provider who can help you determine the difference between side effects and true allergies and whether you are a candidate for penicillin allergy testing.

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Holly Lambert <![CDATA[Biological science phenom joins Texas A&M from Oxford, bringing cutting-edge techniques to “see” proteins as they interact with lipids]]> http://news.tamhsc.edu/?post_type=post&p=22005 2014-11-18T16:58:23Z 2014-11-17T16:38:20Z Arthur Laganowsky, Ph.D., a rising star in protein structural biology, has joined the Texas A&M Health Science Center Institute of Biosciences and Technology (IBT) in Houston’s Texas Medical Center. Laganowsky, the Nicholas Kurti Junior Research Fellow at the University of Oxford in world-renowned Dame Carol Robinson’s Laboratory, is the most recent faculty recruit for the Texas A&M Health Science Center ]]>
Arthur Laganowsky, Ph.D., assistant professor at the Texas A&M Health Science Center Institute of Biosciences and Technology.

Arthur Laganowsky, Ph.D., has recently joined the Texas A&M Health Science Center Institute of Biosciences and Technology as an assistant professor and Director of the Waters Collaboratory for Analysis of Membrane Proteins.

Arthur Laganowsky, Ph.D., a rising star in protein structural biology, has joined the Texas A&M Health Science Center Institute of Biosciences and Technology (IBT) in Houston’s Texas Medical Center. Laganowsky, the Nicholas Kurti Junior Research Fellow at the University of Oxford in world-renowned Dame Carol Robinson’s Laboratory, is the most recent faculty recruit for the Texas A&M Health Science Center IBT, where he will serve as an assistant professor and Director of the Waters Collaboratory for Analysis of Membrane Proteins.

Laganowsky, though early in his career, is pioneering novel approaches to study membrane proteins and their interactions with lipid and drug molecules, which could lead to new treatments for a variety of diseases.

“Dr. Laganowsky is already a global leader in protein structure determination, having brought forth concepts that will revolutionize drug discovery throughout nearly all domains of biomedical science,” said Brett P. Giroir, M.D., CEO of Texas A&M Health Science Center.His work holds great promise for forging a new path in treatment of a wide array of complex and chronic diseases currently plaguing populations around the world.”

On the surface of living cells, protective membranes exist that contain many of our cells most important proteins. Often these proteins have unique and specialized functions, such as safeguarding the cargo going into and out of the cell that are necessary for cell survival. These membranes are largely composed of lipids, which themselves play key roles in maintaining membrane integrity and ensuring these specialized membrane proteins function properly.

Scientists currently know very little about how membrane proteins interact with membrane lipids, and much of what has been learned in the past about the function of these important proteins has not taken into account their interactions with lipids. That is, until now. Laganowsky’s laboratory is one of the first to apply techniques such as X–ray crystallography and native ion mobility mass spectrometry to “see” proteins as they interact with these lipids.

Laganowsky’s recent work, featured on the cover article in the international science journal Nature, discovered how lipids modulate the structure and function of channels responsible for the transport of ammonia and water into cells.

His findings are changing our understanding of the structural dynamics of proteins embedded in the cell membrane, providing novel insights that can be translated into the design and development of new drugs for the treatment of a number of different diseases,” said Cheryl Lyn Walker, Ph.D., director of the Texas A&M Health Science Center IBT.

Laganowsky obtained his doctorate from the University of California, Los Angeles in chemistry and molecular biology in the laboratory of David Eisenberg. He received the Biochemistry Distinguished Dissertation Award for his doctoral work on structural studies of amyloid-related proteins.

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Lindsey Hendrix <![CDATA[Texas A&M Health Science Center awarded grant to extend diabetes education in South Texas]]> http://news.tamhsc.edu/?post_type=post&p=22003 2014-11-18T20:24:58Z 2014-11-17T14:37:56Z The Texas A&M Health Science Center Coastal Bend Health Education Center (CBHEC) has been awarded a $150,000 grant to expand diabetes education in South Texas]]>

The Texas A&M Health Science Center Coastal Bend Health Education Center (CBHEC) has been awarded a $150,000 grant to expand diabetes education in South Texas. The grant, which was awarded by the Methodist Healthcare Ministries of South Texas, will allow the center to educate at least 360 uninsured individuals in Kleberg County about diabetes prevention and management to reduce complications associated with the disease.

Classes will begin in January 2015 in Kingsville and are open to anyone interested in learning more about diabetes prevention and management, not just those who do not have insurance. In addition, King Ranch employees and their families are encouraged to attend as part of the partnership recently established between King Ranch and CBHEC for employee wellness.

The eight-hour program teaches about diabetes, healthy eating, the importance of physical activity, blood glucose monitoring, insulin administration, medication compliance, psychosocial issues and goal setting. Lab work is taken at the onset of the first class, and follow-ups are offered every three months for one year following the last class to assess progress and provide support.

The CBHEC Diabetes Education program, Accredited by the American Diabetes Association, has provided patient-centered diabetes education for more than 14 years.  Its bilingual diabetes education team consists of a medical director, registered nurses, certified diabetes educators, nutritionists and community health workers. The team approach to diabetes care provides continuous, supportive and effective care for people with diabetes.  The National Diabetes Education Program states the benefits of this approach are efficient patient education, increased patient follow-up, improved glycemic control, reduced hospitalizations, improved quality of life and lower risk for the complications of diabetes.

The Kleberg County classes are part of the Texas A&M Healthy South Texas 2025 Initiative, an unprecedented effort to reduce preventable diseases and their consequences in South Texas by 25 percent by the year 2025. The initial focus of the initiative rests on diabetes, asthma and infectious diseases with the goal of improving the wellness of South Texas for generations to come.

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Sloane Williams <![CDATA[INFOGRAPHIC: What is forensic nursing?]]> http://news.tamhsc.edu/?post_type=post&p=21983 2014-11-18T13:09:04Z 2014-11-12T20:28:49Z Abuse victims need the assistance of health care professionals trained in trauma treatment such as sexual assault, partner violence, neglect, or other forms of intentional injury. By collecting evidence and providing testimony for use in a court of law, forensic nurses assist in the apprehension and prosecution of these criminals]]>

Learn more about forensic nursing.

Infographic on forensic nursing

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